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Infant Television Exposure and Child Development: A Study Of Children In Onitsha, Nigeria

  • This study investigated infant television exposure and child development: a study of children age 6 month-below age 2 years in Onitsha. The study, in other words, has its primary objectives as discovering the exposure pattern to television programme of infants in Onitsha and the cognitive development that exposure to television has on children after 17 months. Situated within the framework of cultivation theory and social cognitive theories, the study had its design as census sampling and the population was infants in Onitsha, Anambra State, South East of Nigeria. The entire population was studied due to the small nature of the population while personal interview and observation were employed for data collection. Data were analyzed using explanation building and qualitative data analysis. Findings indicated that infants were exposed to television on an average of two hours a day during week days when they returned from school and four hours a day during weekend and holidays, and that the infants were always exposed to educational infant/ young child-oriented programme and non-formal educational young child oriented movies or programmes. It was also discovered that early television exposure had these influences on the cognitive development of infants; identification of objects, pronunciation of letters and words, including identification of characters in the family. The study concluded that infants, studied were exposed to educational and non-formal educational programmes intended for infants in their stage which had influenced their cognitive development ranging from early language development, identification of objects and pronunciation of words. It was recommended among other things, that parents should ensure guided television viewing by infants so as to get them exposed to programmes that would be beneficial to their development and that early children schools such as crèche and kindergarten should work together with parents to see that movies or programmes watched by infants in school are also watched at home.

A Critical Evaluation of the Role of PMO in the Strategic Management of Projects

  • There is now a shift in the paradigm in the understanding of the role of project management office(PMO) in the strategic management of project; from the traditional operational and administrative roles of dairy management and clerical function to a more strategic engagement from the front end of project through to the entire project lifecycle. Therefore, this study focuses on the evaluation of the role of PMO in strategic management of projects. In-depth interviews were conducted among highly successful project practitioners, across different industries and career ranks. Their divergent view-points were synchronised and synthesised and subsequently matched by the views expressed by scholars in previous studies. In the end, the research found that PMO plays a strategic role in the in the project decision making. The research found that quality assurance and professionalism, stage-gate control, governance and control and strategic communication are the key strategic roles of PMO in the strategic management of projects. It specifically found that stringent governance and control framework is capable of demotivating project team members and also strangles the free flow of innovation, creativity and ingenuity, yet findings shows that too little governance and control also lead to chaos and eventual project failure. Therefore, this study advocates for balance governance model that will encourage innovation, motivate team members, reduces tension and yet ensures compliance, professionalism and best practises.

Traditional African Medicine and the Challenge of Transgenerational Cultural Communication: A New Perspectival Approach

  • Africa’s rich cultural heritage keeps receding in the past. Without prejudice to all the familiar factors that have been blamed for this by research scholars, the study examined the challenge of transgenerational cultural communication in the development of Traditional African Medicine (TAM). The study was based on transgenerational theory. The researcher used the qualitative methodological approach of analyzing related literature and histories to establish a relationship between transgenerational cultural communication and the present state of Traditional African Medicine. The study concluded that the dynamics of transgenerational cultural communication can be strategically deployed to achieve global significance and collaborative relevance for Traditional African Medicine in the delivery of quality health care in the new global order. To achieve this purpose, the paper recommended that African governments should direct and drive much needed change in the cultural attitude of Africans, by investing heavily in the project, not as a political jamboree commemorative of FESTAC’ 77, but as a conscionable and deep rooted process of self-rediscovery and cultural resurgence.

OPEN-DEFECATION-FREE MESSAGES: A KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) STUDY OF RESIDENTS OF ANAMBRA STATE

  • Open Defecation (OD) which is exposing or disposing human feaces in the open environment like bushes, forests, fields, streets, ditches, etc, without cover has been an ancient practice with little or no known harm to human health then. But today, according to recent UNICEF report, open defecation is the worst kind of sanitation challenge globally and Nigeria which used to be number three in open defecation practice in the world after India and China is now topping the list. This study is premised against the background that there is an increasing global attention to the threats of open defecation to human health, dignity and the environment and open defecation facilitates the transmission of infectious diseases like diarrhea, typhoid, cholera and other diseases associated with poor sanitation, hygiene and waste management. To help address the health concerns and ameliorate the spread of these diseases in Nigeria, the Federal Government and other International Development Partners like UNICEF began the Open- Defecation - Free (ODF) campaign messages in the country. ODF messages aimed at providing adequate information and awareness on the negative effects of open defecation practice and to sensitise the people to adopt behavioral change of saying no to open defecation practice but rather use the toilet to achieve an ODF environment. In all these, it is not clear if the residents of Anambra State, one of the pilot States in ODF messages and campaign in Nigeria representing the South East Zone are favorably disposed to these awareness and behavioural change messages and interventions. This circumstance therefore motivated the study titled “Open-Defecation-Free Messages: A knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Study of Residents of Anambra State” which set the following objectives; to determine whether respondents in Anambra State have knowledge of ODF messages, to ascertain the respondents’ sources of information about ODF messages, to ascertain the respondents’ sources of information about ODF messages, to determine whether there is a significant relationship between knowledge of ODF messages and the respondents’ attitude towards these messages, to find out whether there is a significant relationship between respondents’ attitudes to ODF messages and the practice of these messages, and to determine whether respondents in Anambra State advocate for ODF practice after exposure to ODF messages. Three null hypotheses were subjected to empirical test in the study. The study was anchored on Diffusion of Innovation theory and Theory of Reasoned Action. It adopted a Survey research method with questionnaire as instrument of data collection. A sample size of 400 was drawn from the study population of 1,170,100 using the Taro Yamane’s formula. Purposive Sampling technique was used to draw samples of both genders from community members across the four UNICEF intervention Local Government Areas of Anambra State which are Aguata, Anambra East, Nnewi North and Idemili South LGA’s. Simple percentages, frequency tables, mean scores and Chi-square were used for the analysis. Findings from the study reveal that respondents from the area of study have knowledge of ODF messages and that their main source of information are radio, flyers/posters, and interpersonal channels. However, findings show that respondents do not have a positive attitude towards practice of ODF messages even after exposure to ODF messages as majority still indulge in open defecation practices. Based on the outcome of the study, the work recommended the following; more sensitization workshops on the need to adhere to ODF practices, follow up efforts by Open-Defecation-Free campaign officials to ensure compliance, friendly monitoring teams comprising community members, use of radio, flyers, posters and interpersonal channels for ODF communication campaign, economic assistance to communities for latrine construction and provision of public toilets in the intervention communities. Based on the outcome of the study, the researcher developed Inclusive Action Cycle (IAC) model as a contribution to knowledge. The major premise of this model posits that health communication messages should begin and end with members of the target communities from the planning to execution and monitoring stage. Examples of open-defecation-free messages include thus:, Stop OD – Use the toilet, This is ODF Community: Do not defecate in the open – Fine N5000,  Keep your environment safe: Build a latrine.

Media Economics and Sustainability

Premium English Grammar

Deception In Today's Church

Trip to Village Stream

A Trip To The Village Stream

Friends That Make Family

Essentials of Editorial Writing

Anatomy of Brown Envelope Syndrome - Nigerian Press Perspective

Magazine & Newspaper Management and Production

  • This book explores and explains basic techniques in newspaper and magazine publishing. It looks at the management and production aspects, providing details of pre-press, press, and post press activities.

Basics of Advertising

Environmental Communication

Reporting - Principles, Approaches & Special Beats

Fundamentals Of Critical Writing And Reviewing

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